The alarmist approach to conveying science doesn’t really work for me: The earth is warming, glaciers are melting, all the phytoplankton in the ocean are going to die and the entire food web will collapse, so we need to study this now! It’s too Chicken Little. But I’m noticing, in all the literature I read and the grant proposals I’m starting to write, we are pushed to justify why our work is the most crucial, the most underappreciated, the first of its kind. We are trained to convey urgency and importance, sometimes over exaggerating what we know to be true, so we can get the funding or get the story published.
But does that approach work for everyone? Of course not. Scientists have evolved beyond their peer-reviewed publications to need to communicate through multiple platforms: lectures, news media, personal interactions, blogs, etc. and to multiple age ranges: K-grey, non-scientists, policy makers, grant funders. So how do we best do that, hitting the sweet spot of communication?
Everyone is hooked in a different way. When you say the word “Science”, I immediately want to know more, but I’m a scientist. In that respect, it’s been a challenge for me to figure out how to communicate to a wider audience where just saying the word science doesn’t capture the attention of my audience. I am constantly asking my mom and business friends to read over my work. They each give me different opinions. But all of them have told me to stop leading with the scientific justification. During my Master of Advanced Studies program at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), we were taught how to convert scientific work into an engaging “sticky” presentation. We read the book ‘Made to Stick’ and learned that there is a formula for communicating that boils down to one main idea: make it sticky. The goal is obvious, but the method to get there can take many forms—one needs to connect to the audience through surprise, inquiry, or a personal story. We practiced each of these different approaches aimed at connecting to an audience, and our peers let us know what worked and what did not work. We presented scientific papers in the stickiest way possible, sometimes feeling like we were doing the science a disservice by not divulging all the nitty gritty details.
I am now a first-year graduate student in the PhD program at SIO under Dr. Maria Vernet. I lead a citizen science project with the tourism industry in Antarctica called FjordPhyto. Our project encourages passengers to get involved in collecting phytoplankton samples from polar coastal fjords. They learn about the ocean in ways they may never have previously considered and the samples help us understand how the community of phytoplankton changes throughout the season in response to increased levels of glacial meltwater. I have had to communicate in a countless variety of ways. Some come more naturally to me, others I struggle to find the appropriate words and style through which to communicate. Over the course of running this project I have communicated with polar guide staff, trained non-scientists to follow scientific protocols, provided short videos introducing myself and the project to travelers. I even had a chance to board one of the ships to give in-person lectures to the guests. I share stories and results through the project website, blog posts, and social media platforms. I created a crowdfunding campaign to interest donors in supporting our project. I’ve started on the journey of grant writing, and I attend conferences to speak to a wide audience of scientists, educators, and policy-makers about my work. How do I know how to do all this communication and outreach?
I’m winging it.
Nowhere in our PhD program are we required to take courses on communication development. If we want that training, we need to look for opportunities offered outside of our program. The good news is, that training does exist. I’ve attended communication workshops, workshops on how to give a TED talk, and how to write for different non-science audiences. I’ve organized talks on science and career opportunities at classrooms, cafes, and pubs just to put myself out there in front of people. I’ve developed social media platforms and two websites that I post regularly on: www.womanscientist.com, which highlights my science career and showcases inspiring women in field sciences through blogs, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter, and www.fjordphyto.org, which hosts information on the citizen science project we run in Antarctica.
What I’ve realized, is that the key to communication is to just do it. It is a skill you build over time. Just write. Just blog. Just make a video. Just start somewhere with anything you want to share. It doesn’t always have to be polished when you first start out. Forget perfection! I often reread old posts I’ve written and cringe. But that’s not what matters. What matters is that I’m engaging with people. The key is to share that I’m a personable human, and a scientist. I’m not a sterile being wearing a lab coat, working robotically in the lab.
If you had told me when I was younger that I would teach high school classes, run two websites, speak on ships to tourists about science, write research papers and grant proposals, I would have told you you’ve got the wrong person. I was the shy kid at school. So shy in fact that multiple people wrote in my yearbook: “You seem cool, you should talk more.” What did they mean? What do people talk about?! I observed my peers trying to figure it out. Looking back, I realize this was my first step to learning the art of communication. How do people know what to say and when to say it? I analyzed. Overanalyzed. Just like a scientist. Then one day it hit me. Communication is an art. There is no right way, no one way. People are curious and want to connect with other people. So just share your stories. Be a personable person. Share the work you’re doing and the emotions you have about your ups and downs in science. Storytelling and communication are skills and once you build a good skill base, you can practice the art and transform it into something of your own.
Of course, I still get nervous. I obsess over whether I’ll say the right thing, have the right explanation, give the right answer. But I remind myself that I’m human too. I have the skills, now I’m working on the art and I can communicate in the ways I feel impact a wide audience. Whatever I say, it will be OK. If I want to use the alarmist approach to hook people, or avoid it and just use a personal story, I can do that. I have a lot of fun in my line of work as a young world-traveling oceanographer, and I want others to be curious about the natural world, pursue that curiosity, and be inspired to get involved in science themselves. That is the angle I take when sharing my science.
The following post is from the Let's Do Something BIG. Plastic Free July Support Group on Facebook. Check it out and join in on the conversation of how we can each reduce our single-use plastic consumption.
A Brief Introduction
When I first started cutting plastic out of my life, there were LOADS of things I learned and struggled with initially, as each of you will find in the next month or so of implementation. You can read more about that experience here, but this page will provide you with several need-to-know things to help to reduce your waste. Just a few things to note before those tips...No matter whether you are doing the challenge for the whole month or just a week, use this group to post updates and photos from your efforts to complete the no-plastic challenge and share the things you have done to cut it out. Feel free to share tips, ask questions and post a TON because the more content we have, the more education that can be done. For the month/week during which you complete this challenge, please collect every bit of plastic that you intentionally/unintentionally use that would otherwise be thrown away or recycled in a glass jar with a lid. At the end of the challenge, I plan to get a photo of everyone's jar/each person with their jar and a brief tip/post about your experience. Photos of tips and experiences of ambassadors will be shared on LDSB’s instagram. The idea here is not to throw out every single bit of plastic in our lives right away if it is still functional (doing so would be really wasteful), but to use these things to the extent of their lifetime and then replace them with more sustainable materials once they are tossed away. (i.e. if you use tupperware/plastic containers to take your lunch around in, you would ideally replace those once they are no longer usable with some sort of metal or glass container) The overall point in this challenge is to become more aware of how much plastic is everywhere in our lives, and what we can do to reduce our use of it--as it is really quite terrible for the environment (SEE BELOW). RIGHT! Let’s get started!
Tips and Tricks for Avoiding Plastic
Single-use plastics are everywhere, here are some tips to avoiding them:
Resources, Videos and Information
There is SO MUCH information online! Learn more about zero-waste living and plastic-free alternatives, and how people have worked these things into their lifestyles.
This is a good list to get you started.
WHERE TO BUY
This is a list, by state, of shops with package free shopping options around the United States. Similar maps exist for the UK and other countries around the world. Have a search and share with us what you find!
Lauren Singer also recently started the Package Free Shop, which has free shipping all over the US for orders over $50. They ship plastic-free, and have loads of plastic free products available online.
Sure, you’ve agreed to my pleas of getting involved with the challenge, but WHY? Why does it matter? As plastic can only be down-cycled it can never, ever be gotten rid of once it is produced. Every. single. piece. of plastic that is produced will either end up in a landfill or the oceans. Yes, recycling is better than not, however keep that fact in mind. Right. Okay. But how does the fact that it ends up in the oceans affect me? Out of sight, out of mind, right? I beg to differ. Plastic has detrimental effects on life that subsists in and off of the oceans (including us!). Aside from the fact that the ocean faces mass extinctions due to other environmental issues, plastic contributes to putting this life in danger. Watch these videos for more information:support group page updated with such materials, so check back from time to time for further guidance and resources. Also keep in mind that this process will inevitably be quite challenging, and at times all of us will fail, but what matters at the end of the day is that 1) we all learn something and 2) in at least some small way we are reducing the overall amount of single-use plastics consumed. Thank you so much for getting involved with this project, about which I am very excited. Cut out that plastic, stay optimistic and always remember that together we can do something BIG. Good luck!
Get excited for another round of plastic-free inspiration with posts on our Instagram from our ambassadors throughout all of Plastic Free July! If you are keen to learn more about plastic consumption reduction in general or to become an ambassador yourself, check out LDSB.'s Plastic Free July Support Group on Facebook. Watch this space for a Plastic Free July round up post towards the end of the month, and try your darndest to refuse single-use plastics for this month of July!
My name is Jill Pelto, I am a Masters student at the University of Maine in the Earth and Climate Sciences Department, and I work in the Antarctic. My research addresses the history of the ice sheet over the last 10,000 years, focusing on the retreat of ice in the southern Ross Embayment. This sort of paleoclimate work is done in large part to learn about the sensitivity of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in the past to various ocean and climate parameters, to better understand how it may respond to current change.
I am also a climate change artist, and I create paintings that address both positive and negative environmental topics, with the aim of using art as a platform for effective science communication.
As an undergraduate student I worked on two separate majors at UMaine: Studio Art and Earth Science, and I developed a strong drive to link the often disparate fields. In my painting and printmaking courses I sought to compose images that shared what I was learning in my classes about the climate and glacier systems. I was inspired to share important environmental topics, as well as subjects that are simply fascinating to learn about. I was able to work in the field several times in my undergraduate career with Dr. Brenda Hall, and created field sketches and watercolors while doing work in these places, which included a field season in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Over my five years in these programs I continued to develop ideas for showcasing science in my art, with my overarching goal being a meaningful communication
about our natural world.
I wanted to gauge reactions to my artwork, and my initial audience was my classmates, professors, friends, and family. I was able to hear various interpretations of what my art communicated to them both emotionally and informationally. My objective was to engage people broadly by creating pieces that could express clearly and impactfully.
So far, the most successful and creative approach I have developed is incorporating graphical data into my artwork. I use x-y plots that tell simple stories of change over time, and link these with a visual message about the research question. Several topics I’ve chosen are: increasing temperatures over the last century and how this affects forest fire frequency; melting sea ice in the arctic and how this impacts species that rely on it; a shift in the United States to green energy use and how this inspires further conservation.
One of the first steps I plan to take as I finish graduate school and begin my career is to collaborate with scientists from a myriad of disciplines to communicate the research that they do with a broader audience. Art is a powerful form of expression, and is an excellent platform for inspiring thought. Whether I can transform reactions to my art into inspiring action is a question I hope to be able to answer in the years to come; but, without a doubt, I will try! Another major goal of mine is to continue to use my data art to teach younger generations about our changing world. It’s absolutely crucial that we share and instill an understanding of the impact of humanity on the environment, in school systems world-wide. I helped to develop a lesson plan about my work with Science Friday’s Ryan Becker, and it has been absolutely wonderful to see the creations of students from around the world, and how the students have learned from this!
I still have a lot to learn about communication, and I am continuing to explore different ways to mix science and art. One of the biggest inspirations for me has been working in Antarctica; it has been so impactful to actually visualize the role of the ice sheets for maintaining the sea level and climate in which we live today. Once I finish my degree, I plan to make a series about the beauty and vulnerability of these locations.
Young scientists are entering a field that needs more clear, and more diverse, communication with the public. As a result it is important to seek out a variety of methods for sharing the outcomes and messages of research, and note that collaboration with others (journalists, artists, writers, teachers, etc.) is a really successful way to achieve this. It’s important for us as scientists to start thinking outside of the box, and begin to explore unique, alternative methods through which to communicate science.
Effective communication of science to a wide audience is arguably as important as the science itself, although it receives less attention in the academic world. As a first-year master’s student, I can finally say that I am relatively confident in my ability to read an academic journal article and come away from it with an understanding of the scientific questions answered and the big-picture implications of the results—provided that the paper relates to my specific sub-field. The further the topic strays from atmospheric dynamics as inferred from ice core chemistry, however, the more lost I become. Now don’t get me wrong, I totally understand the importance of publishing technical papers in academic journals written for an audience of experts. But everyone—experts, non-experts, people of all academic levels and concentrations—is dependent upon nature. And in a world where the natural sciences are increasingly tied to politics, it is essential for policymakers, and those who elect them, to be able to understand how we affect nature and how we can better coexist with it.
One of my favorite sessions at the 2016 American Geophysical Union (AGU) conference involved talks by scientists about their research, with the caveat that they could only use the 1,000 most used English words. This was a refreshing break from many of the other talks I’d been to that day, which, as an undergrad attending my first AGU meeting, had been way over my head.
It took one Google search to find this helpful Text Editor created by Theo Sanderson. The page allows users to type into a box and underlines any word that is not one of the 1,000 most used. As an example, here is the original text of my undergraduate thesis title and abstract followed by the “translation” I came up with:
“Evaluating Precipitation in Southern Alaska using Ice Core and Automatic Weather Station Records”
Precipitation in Alaska is sensitive to the Aleutian Low (ALow) pressure system and North Pacific sea-surface temperatures, as shown by the increase in Alaskan sub-Arctic precipitation associated with a shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1976. Precipitation in the high-elevation accumulation zones of Alaskan alpine glaciers provides critical mass input for glacial mass balance, which has been declining in recent decades due to warmer summer temperatures despite the winter precipitation increase. Twin ice cores holding a climate record of more than 1,200 years, collected from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska, show a doubling of annual snow accumulation over the past 150 years, with most of the change observed in the winter. Other alpine ice cores collected from the Alaska and St. Elias ranges show similar snowfall increases over recent decades. Here we use Automatic Weather Station (AWS) data from the Mt. Hunter drill site (elevation 3,900 m a.s.l.) and from nearby Denali climber’s Base Camp (elevation 2,195 m a.s.l.), as well as from various low- altitude coastal sites throughout south-central Alaska, to evaluate alpine and lowland Alaskan precipitation on annual, seasonal, and storm-event timescales over the time period from 2013- 2016. Through this analysis, we determine that synoptic patterns associated with individual storms at the Denali ice core site are consistent with seasonally-averaged anomalies for the wettest seasons over the entire south-central Alaska region, which provides confidence in our ability to use the ice core as a regional climate proxy. We focus on the role of variable ALow and North Pacific High strength in influencing seasonal variations in Alaskan storm tracks and find that differences in synoptic conditions, such as precipitation, sea level pressure, and winds, are associated with differences in the paths of regional-scale storms between summer and winter. Our analysis will improve our paleoclimate interpretations of the 1,200-year Mt. Hunter accumulation record as well as improve our ability to understand low-elevation hydroclimate proxies from lake sediment cores.
1,000 Most Used Words Translation:
“Studying stuff that falls from the sky using sticks of ice and stuff that has already fallen from the sky”
Stuff that falls from the sky in the highest-up US state responds to changes in where the air goes and to how warm the big water body is. In high-up places that are home to really big bodies of ice, ice-rain is important for the big bodies of ice to stay as big as they are. They have been getting smaller because it is getting warmer, even though more ice-rain is falling during the time of year when it's cold. Two sticks of ice were taken from one of the big ice bodies, and they can tell us what the air used to feel like and how much stuff used to fall from the sky. They show that in the past 150 years, the number of ice-rains has gone up times two. Most of the going-up has happened during the part of the year when it's cold. Other ice sticks taken from places close by show pretty much the same thing. Here, we look at how much ice-rain has fallen from the sky at the high-up place we took the ice sticks from, at a slightly lower place, and at several different places that are much lower (next to the big body of water). We are studying how much has fallen at these places each year, each part of the year, and during times when the sky is angry, for the time from 2013 to 2016. By doing this, we found out that when the sky is angry at the high-up places, it is also angry at the lower places. This makes us feel that we can use the ice sticks to find out how the air used to feel and how much stuff used to fall from the sky in this whole area. We also focus on how the sky is acting to make rain and ice-rain come in from different directions at different times of year. This study will help us use the ice sticks to learn more about how it used to be in this area. It will also make it easier to use sticks of brown stuff from the floor of little bodies of water to understand how the air used to feel and how much stuff fell from the sky in low places that don't have any big bodies of ice.
Obviously, effective science communication for a wide audience would fall somewhere in between these two renditions (unless you happen to be giving a talk in a kindergarten classroom). This task was initially difficult for me—I don’t normally think of storms as “times when the sky is angry”! —but it became easier as my brain shifted its way of communicating. This makes me believe that science can be made understandable for an audience of any level, as long as we challenge our minds to think in ways we aren’t used to, or necessarily comfortable with. Fundamentally, what truths do we as scientists want to convey?
With that, I challenge you scientists out there to try this exercise for yourself! And if you are coming from outside of science and run into road-blocks in understanding technical scientific writing on a platform put out to the general public, reach out to the authors to let them know. For it is the collective responsibility of scientists to make the science we do digestible by the general public.
Of course we all know walking is good for our health; it benefits our cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems as well as our lungs, mental clarity, and emotional well-being. We also know walking is better for the environment than driving because oil drilling, emissions, tires, and car fluids contribute enormous amounts of pollution to the atmosphere. Fact: one gallon of gasoline creates about 19 pounds of CO2 because the released hydrocarbons attach to oxygen in the atmosphere.
However, there are numerous other benefits to walking that I’ve only discovered after being forced to take baby steps.
Watching a baby take its first steps is a singular moment, an unforgettable milestone worth celebrating – and so begins the bittersweet struggle of a child becoming independent. From the day my first daughter could walk, she insisted on it, and gone were the brisk walks with baby in stroller, allowing me to get exercise everywhere I went. Instead, we now walk at a snail’s pace, taking an hour to walk around the block, while stopping to notice every stone, leaf, insect, piece of litter, etc. It can be frustrating when I’m trying to get somewhere, but when I’m patient and go at her pace, I’m reminded that each leaf, flower, and rock is wondrous. I realize I overlook many important and interesting things that exist on a small scale because I’m focused on getting somewhere, and forgetting the journey is utmost.
People have walked to find peace, joy, and mindfulness for centuries. Henry David Thoreau wrote extensively about the benefits of walking to enliven the body, spirt, and mind. Zen Buddhists and others practice forms of walking meditation, an ancient tradition.
Walking is a great equalizer – it removes auspices of status, and puts us, rich or poor, on equal footing with all the other species who only move under their own power, and with our ancestors that lived prior to mechanical locomotion. Walking moves us at a pace in keeping with our physical development, literally grounding us and connecting us to the Earth.
Walking is to slow down and disconnect from technology, giving the brain a chance to collect itself, as opposed to the high alert required at all times when driving. Too many people go from their house, to their car in the garage, down the road to work or the store, and back into the house, with barely more than a few steps on the actual Earth, or a few breaths of outside air, day after day.
Walking is a powerful political act as well. In 1930, Gandhi and many followers walked 240 miles to the sea to gather salt, which at the time was illegal under British Rule. Eventually, this act of nonviolent protest, this walk, lead to the repeal of the salt tax, and eventually to India’s independence from Great Britain.
From 1958 to 1981, an extraordinary woman known as Peace Pilgrim walked over 25,000 miles back and forth across the United States, Canada, and Mexico, teaching the steps to inner peace to thousands of people while advocating for nuclear disarmament and world peace. In present times, on any given weekend across the world, supporters join together in walk-a-thons and marches to show solidarity and raise awareness and funds for various health and social concerns like multiple sclerosis and equal rights.
Getting to walk is a luxury I value, and is often my only option for getting around during the day. It certainly isn’t always easy, but helps me be more mindful in planning my day, as it takes extra time. It also reminds me to have gratitude: for strong legs, heart, and lungs; for the hand-me down jogging stroller that gets us around in the rain and snow; for those who keep the bike path and sidewalks clear; for considerate drivers; for my girls’ adventurous and cooperative spirits; for our warm clothes; and for the blessing of getting to live in a walkable town with a 360 degree view of beautiful scenery. It’s been an adventure these last couple winters, pushing through the ice and snow, the girls wrapped up in a lambswool and a down sleeping bag.
So, yes, it takes effort, and I have to remind myself constantly that doing things that are hard is good for me.
Walking has helped me get to know all the different neighborhoods I’ve lived in, and going a different way each time helps me keep a fresh perspective on life. We have encounters with wildlife; birds, insects, and even fish, that we would never have seen if we’d been in a car. We smell and feel the air change as we go from dry warm areas to shady moist spots where the path heads into the shadows or dips into a drainage area. Walking outside connects us to the seasons and cycles of the Earth as we see and smell the plants that are blooming at any given time, and as we witness the phases of the moon and the angle of the sun which helps us instinctually track our journey through time and space.
Walking helps me reconnect to myself, to the Earth, and to my community. We notice things when we are walking, rather than driving, because they go by slowly. Getting to know the neighborhood gives me a sense of connection and belonging, and having eyes on the neighborhood helps everybody. Generally, more connections within any system contribute to a stronger and healthier system, resilient and resistant to damage.
In these uncertain political times, I crave opportunities to build connections with inspiring and uplifting people and things. As simple as walking is, it has helped me change my attitude about how I can be of service in the world. In my present life stage as a stay-at-home mom, I still yearn to contribute professionally, especially with the constant barrage of bad news about our environment and political crisis. Walking as a contemplative practice, like yoga or sitting meditation, helps me stay present and mindful of the things that unify all of us. Walking helps me focus on positive solutions, rather than despair. I notice what is working, what is wondrous.
I realize walking to work or errands is not an option for many, but nearly all of us can dedicate at least a few steps each day to enjoying our present moment, to honoring mother Earth, and to peace for all beings.
I used to feel discouraged that the most important accomplishment of any given day was just walking my daughter to school and back, but now I feel enormous gratitude for the opportunity. I now see it as a chance to expose my children to the beauty of the world. My individual actions may not change the world, but I believe if enough of us declare peace in our personal sphere of influence, we will knit together a strong fabric of peace that connects different individuals and different cultures across the globe, to the benefit of all.
Bipedalism, walking upright on two feet, is one of the key reasons humans have been so successful as a species. So if walking, in many respects, makes us human, maybe walking more can help us be more human – more humane. Maybe it is under our own two feet where we can find many answers to help us make peace in ourselves, with each other, and with planet EARTH, while saving money, staying healthy, and building community connections.
Sara Tremayne currently lives in beautiful Girdwood, Alaska. Enhancing connections between people and the rest of Nature drives her personally and professionally as an adventurer, a mother, an artist, an environmental educator, and a landscape designer - specializing in native plants and habitat restoration. She is grateful to be a part of the worldwide community who are working for a healthy planet and world peace.
In 2016, only 25% of the STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths) graduates in the UK were female. Throughout history women's contributions have been limited by their exclusion from most formal scientific education entities. I have chosen to write this article because I am very passionate about the subject of getting more women into historically male-dominated scientific fields. I am currently studying physics at Sheffield Hallam University, and am part of a noticeable female minority on the course. Although I don’t feel intimidated by this environment, there must be a reason that there are so few women in this field.
Another personal incentive for me to raise awareness on this issue is that my idol Vera Rubin died in 2016. It was a year when the deaths of many famous people were reported widely in the media, but I saw barely any mention of the passing of Vera Rubin. Possibly this was because she wasn’t a celebrity, or perhaps because her work in science wasn’t considered as noteworthy as having released an album or being in a movie, which is another issue in and of itself. This lack of recognition of her passing just seems so fundamentally wrong, as the research she carried out led to the current theories surrounding dark matter and the chemical makeup of our universe. And, as citizens of this universe, shouldn’t we care?
Recently a major blockbuster movie was released called Hidden Figures, displaying the prejudice against women working at NASA who were instrumental in helping calculate the moon landing. I feel like this really helped highlight the issue to a wider population. So I want to use this article as a platform to discuss some of the women that have played a major role in scientific developments and why it is so important that we encourage people of all genders to pursue their dream job.
What women have there been in science?
Although universities were initially established in the 11th century, it was not until the 1700s that Laura Bassi became the first female professor. The late 19th century saw rise of higher education available to women, including the establishment of the renowned Cheltenham Ladies College in the UK. Despite the limitations to formal female education, there have been many influential women in science throughout history, here are just a few:
Why do we need more women in science?
It’s not so much particularly that we need more people in science, the issue is that gender roles are stereotyped, and that not all young girls are being encouraged to pursue their dream jobs. This is the same cause for there being fewer male nurses, and it’s just wrong as every person should be able to pursue their dream job. It’s easily possible that young people aren’t given enough encouragement to follow their passions, but it’s also possible that many people aren’t presented with the opportunities in the first place.
A lot of the historic reasons for women not pursuing such careers were due to the preconception that they would be unable to work a job and look after children at the same time. Nowadays this has been made less relevant because of childcare being made available to more people. However, there are still sometimes judgements passed on women who choose careers over having children or pressures imposed upon women in professional careers to not have children at all. The brilliant Marie Curie is quoted to have said: “I have frequently been questioned, especially by women, of how I could reconcile family life with a scientific career. Well, it has not been easy.”
How can we encourage more women into science?
Young girls are typically encouraged towards traditionally feminine roles according to tradition, with statements made throughout life suggesting that women should be intimidated by the typically male-dominated field of science. WISE is a campaign for gender balance in STEM that enables people in business, industry and education to increase the participation, contribution and success of women in the field. They aim to influence society from an educational level to the level of the boardroom in industry; it is organisations like these that we must get behind to encourage gender-equality within science. However, encouraging women to pursue their scientific interests starts at home and in schools at an early age. If children are told they can, then they are that much closer to trying.
At my university I am part of the physics society and I would love to go with the physics society into different schools to encourage young people into science. I think it would be great for them to see that I, as a non-stereotypical or not “nerdy looking” person am studying the nerdiest of subjects.
To finish with a quote from QuynhGiao Nguyen, a materials scientist at NASA: “If this is really the passion you want to pursue then pursue it without limitation or hesitation. Put your heart and soul into it and break the stereotype.” (June 2016, Media Planet) So, let’s unite, and using our hearts and souls together we can do something BIG.
Rhian studies physics in Sheffield, United Kingdom and grew up on a dairy farm in the rolling hills of North Wales. She loves everything science and outdoors related.
Alexis McGivern began her plastic-free lifestyle in 2013 after setting herself a 2-month challenge. She completed her MSc at University of St Andrews (Scotland) and currently lives in Switzerland, working for the Global Marine and Polar Programme at IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here’s your chance to get to know her story.
• What inspired you to begin a plastic-free lifestyle and when did it all begin?
I’ve always considered myself to be an environmentalist, but I was so preoccupied with melting ice caps and issues in far-away places that I never really looked at my own choices and how they affected the planet (I know, right?!). Honestly, the plastic-free thing came in a total epiphany: I was eating a granola bar one day and it suddenly just struck me – where is this wrapper going to go when I’m done with it? Where will it end up? Will it stay in the country? Will it be shipped somewhere else? Will it be landfilled or incinerated? I wondered if anyone else had had these questions and ended up spending the afternoon down the rabbit hole of blogs and pages of people talking about how they managed to live plastic-free, making their own cosmetics, shopping without packaging and learning to be more self-sufficient. I was so enchanted! I made a pledge to myself to quit plastic right there. That was almost 5 years ago now!
• What was the hardest part of cutting out plastic?
Definitely losing the absolute convenience of plastic – you can easily get a snack or even a full meal pre-packaged and ready to move with you on the go.
When I first started plastic-free living, I was really frustrated at having to plan ahead all the time. Turns out there are other ways to be convenient and plastic-free: for example, I always carry a small cloth bag on me so I can grab a sandwich or a croissant on the go, I can get loose fruit from the grocery store if in a pinch and I’ve learned how to whip up quick and delicious snacks at home.
• What are your top three tips for living plastic-free for someone who may feel restrained in doing so?
I definitely understand this! My friends, roommates and family are not necessarily living the same lifestyle, so there are times I’ve had to compromise. I would definitely say it’s important to do what works for you: going cold turkey overnight might mean you’re less likely to stick to it. Start with the easy stuff – the reusable bag, the water bottle and the reusable coffee cup. Once you’ve integrated those three items into your daily habit, I encourage you to branch out and try more changes. Also, don’t beat yourself up if you find it difficult – plastic is made to be extremely convenient and it’s tough to give it up. Instead of focusing on the things you can’t give up, why not pat yourself on the back for all the plastic you can give up through small and easy switches?
I would also say a lot of the plastic-free living “kits” can be expensive and an investment upfront. You can totally make do with what you have; you can reuse plastic bags you already have or use old pasta sauce jars as containers for the bulk store- there’s no need to drop tons of cash for this new habit!
Finally, I’d recommend when you first start out to dig around your trash can and see what type of plastic you are throwing away. For example, mine was full with convenience foods like chip bags, small containers of cherry tomatoes and pre-wrapped cookies. So those were the first things I started with: I learned how to make my own chips, I got my tomatoes loose from the farmers market and I got really good & fast at making cookies!
• How can we learn more about living plastic-free?
My blog, my instagram, and my youtube channel with Josephine from Rogue gone Vogue.*
I also really recommend reading these two blogs: Lindsay Miles’ Treading My Own Path and Anne Marie Bonneau’s Zero Waste Chef – both are packed full with tons of really useful tips and great recipes as well! When I first started plastic-free living, I lived by Beth Terry’s 100 Steps to a Plastic Free Life.
Enjoy and good luck – please feel free to email me at email@example.com or post your questions on the blog or instagram!
*Additional note from author: check out a TedTalk Alexis did here as well!
Leona grew up in eight countries on three continents, making the world her home. This has given her the chance to see so many amazing places, which she is passionate to protect. Having recently completed her BSc at Durham University, she is currently working as a field assistant at the Swiss Ornithological Institute.
The Fijian presidency gaveled COP23 to a close just before 7am on Saturday, November 18 after a full night and early morning of negotiations. You can see the details of what happened over the course of the evening here.
The overall document coming out of COP23 is the Fiji Momentum for Implementation. Some of the major points of interest include:
Loss and Damage: The main COP 23 agenda item focusing on loss and damage was the review of the report of the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts. There was much debate between parties as to whether loss and damage should become a permanent item on the negotiating agenda during future subsidiary body meetings, especially considering what some felt was an unclear mandate, and need, for the Executive Committee to continue its work after the initial 5-year work plan ends in 2020.
Looking at the COP23 decision regarding the Warsaw Mechanism, it looks as though the parties have tried to address this by making clearer the rolling of the Committee beyond these initial five years ending in 2020. This seems to be an alternative solution to making loss and damage a permanent item on future negotiating agendas.
Of course, the underlying tension below much of the loss and damage work and demands in negotiations is that countries see this mechanism as a tool for financing projects addressing loss and damage issues. This COP has done nothing in its official reports to move past the knowledge-gathering efforts of the previous two years and into looking at financial mechanisms attached to loss and damage.
You can find the advanced unedited version of the WIM decision here.
Agriculture: The working group on agriculture finally reached an agreement in the SBSTA/SBI joint task this COP, a decision 3 years in the making (over the course of five sessions). The decision calls on SBSTA and SBI to jointly address food security and agriculture, and specifically its vulnerability to climate change, through workshops and other means not really specified in the decision. The one-page decision then requests observers and parties to submit requests for topics for such meetings, listing 6 topics to begin with which include modalities for implementing the recommendations of the past 3 years' workshops, methods of assessing adaptation/adaptation co-benefits, and improved livestock management systems.
You can find the advanced unedited version of the decision here.
Indigenous Peoples: An outcome many parties were looking to by the end of this COP was the operationalization of the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform, mandated by the Paris Agreement to focus on knowledge, effective engagement, and climate actions/policies. The final decision accepted by the COP lays out in two pages the purpose of the Platform as understood by the Parties as well as a further explanation/illustration of the three general focuses of knowledge, engagement, and climate policies. Additionally, per the decision, the first activity of the Platform will be a multi-stakeholder workshop on the further operationalization of the Platform's three work areas. The decision still left questions that need to be answered before any full operationalization and so it has been referred to the SBSTA April-May session to be further discussed.
You can find the advanced unedited version of the decision here.
Adaptation Finance: Countries continued to negotiate on the role of the Adaptation Fund in serving the Paris Agreement throughout this COP. They did not decide that the Adaptation Fund "shall" serve the Paris Agreement, but there is agreement that it should serve the Paris Agreement. Shall adds legal weight to the assertion which some countries are not comfortable with as of yet. The conversation moved away from this language and towards the legality of how to transition the Fund. The parties decided that this transition should be the focus of the next negotiating session. Here is a link to the final informal note from the APA agenda item on the Adaptation Fund.
Ocean Pathway Partnership: Fiji along with many partner countries launched the Ocean Pathway Partnership on Thursday. This one page document states the importance in connecting oceans and climate change. It specifically calls out the interconnectedness of Sustainable Development Goals 13 (climate) and 14 (ocean). The document does not create any new agenda item or work program under the UNFCCC (which is what some parties had hoped for), but it does encourage integration of the ocean into future NDCs and into other negotiating streams. At the launch, Fiji announced that Sweden would be the co-chair of the Ocean Pathway Partnerships. Here is additional information about the Pathway although the final document is not posted yet.
To check out the decisions coming out of COP23, you can check out the UNFCCC website.
Thank you for following along during our time at COP23! Please reach out to us if you have any addition questions about the UNFCCC process.
Anna is a master's student pursuing a dual degree in Climate and Quaternary Studies with the Climate Change Institute and in Global Policy with the School for Policy and International Affairs. Her research interests include climate change adaptation governance and interactions of international climate governance and ocean governance regimes.
Interested in reading more? Find more posts at 'COP23 Perspectives: The University of Maine Delegation to the 2017 United Nations Climate Change Negotiations'
In September 2015, the UN established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a follow on to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The idea behind setting these goals is to suggest ways in which countries and people can work to improve the human condition. Countries have agreed that these new SDGs should be achieved by 2030.
Only two months later, countries gathered in Paris and successfully negotiated the Paris Agreement which is now the anchor for all conversations taking place here at COP23 and under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change more generally.
While the Paris Agreement does not specifically call out the SDGs, it references the need to work "in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty" throughout the text. As climate action is one of the 17 SDGs-- it is SDG 13-- there is a direct tie between these two UN efforts.
In the age of the MDGs, they were not at the forefront of conversations in the climate change arena. Under the UNFCCC, in Paris in 2015, the SDGs were brand new and were not broadly discussed during negotiations or side events. In Marrakech last year, there was some commentary, but still no overwhelming linkage. At COP23, this has all changed.
The SDGs are everywhere here in Bonn, and it is clear that efforts are being made, especially on the part of the non-governmental groups here, to highlight this linkage. As you bike between the two zones of the conference, you are met by a massive globe surrounded by the SDG logo (see photo). The side events schedule is laden with discussions about the interconnectedness not only of the Paris Agreement and SDG13, but with the targets and indicators of almost every SDG.
Think tanks have put together massive databases to provide evidence of the connection. At one side event I attended called "The 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement- Towards a new and coherent development paradigm at the national and international level," three organizations presented their own version of this content. WRI and GIZ have a report coming out in the next few weeks with information on the overlap and disconnect between which ministries within a country manage the SDGs and which deal with the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement. One database to check out is the WRI SDG-NDC tool where you can generate all kinds of information about the relationship between the SDGs and the NDCs. Another one to check out is the German Development Institute and the Stockholm Environment Institute's tool called NDC-SDG Connections.
However, some delegates here at the COP are weary of this push for a joint SDG-NDC agenda. A professor from TERI University in India suggested during a side event last week that she wants to caution countries about the joint agenda due to the challenges associated with operationalizing it. She asked. "Are we looking at these as obligations or are we actually taking full ownership?" She goes on to explain that, to her, a combining of the agendas suggests that countries will start to see all these lumped tasks as obligations which is a problem.
In the negotiating rooms that I have been in this week, the delegates have not been bringing the SDGs into the conversation. As of now, while the two agendas are linking up in the civil society sphere, they still remain separate in the eyes of the negotiators here in Bonn.
This will be something to watch over the coming years- will these massive goals for humanity be brought together or kept within their own constructed worlds?
Anna is a master's student pursuing a dual degree in Climate and Quaternary Studies with the Climate Change Institute and in Global Policy with the School for Policy and International Affairs. Her research interests include climate change adaptation governance and interactions of international climate governance and ocean governance regimes.